||Ai - 400 008, india. viagra does it work for women E-mail: deannt/at/vsnl. Net author information â–º article notes â–º copyright and license information â–º received february 9, 2008; accepted november 5, 2009. viagra without prescription Copyright © journal of minimal access surgery this is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. what is difference in viagra and viagra Abstract open thoracotomy is the standard procedure for various thoracic diseases against which other procedures are compared. Currently video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (vats) has gained widespread acceptance in the management of a variety of thoracic disorders. It decreases the morbidity and duration of hospital stay. cheap viagra online A total of 133 children with various thoracic diseases who presented at a university teaching hospital in the department of pediatric surgery, from june 2000 to december 2007, were included. viagra online Of the 133 patients, 116 patients had empyema, all of whom were subjected to vats, and an attempt at debridement/decortication and drainage was made. buy viagra canada Other thoracic disorders treated included lung abscesses, lung biopsies, hydatid cysts, and so on. Patients with empyema were treated according to their stage of disease. Of the 116 patients who underwent thoracoscopy, 16 had to be converted to open surgery due to various reasons. much does viagra cost uk prescription The mean duration for removal of drain was three days and the average total duration of hospital stay was six days. Similarly the application of vats was advantageous in other thoracic diseases. order viagra Keywords: empyema, thoracoscopy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery introduction the management option for empyema depends on the phase of the disease. Antibiotics and intercostal drainage (icd) is the mainstay of the treatment, but some cases may need decortication. During the early (exudative) phase of empyema, the fluid is thin and icd may suff ice, but with progression of the disease into the second (fibrinopurulent) phase, the fluid becomes gelatinous with fibrin strands, loculations, and adhesions, in which case, debridement and decortication become necessary. The last phase (organized) is characterized by an increased cross-linking of the fibrin, trapping bacteria in the interstices, as the fluid reabsorbs and decortication becomes essential. viagra does it work for women Video-assisted techniques offer distinct advantages in the accurate staging of the disease process, effectiveness of. cheap generic viagra
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